Wakes Colne History
WAKES COLNE HISTORY
WAKES COLNE (2,058 a. or 833 ha.) lies on the north bank of the river Colne c. 8 miles west of Colchester. The ancient parish (1,935 a.) was bounded by the Colne on part of the south, as mall tributary on much of the west, and the Cambridge (earlier Jennyes or Loveney Hall) (fn. 69) brook on part of the north; the eastern boundary with Fordham followed field boundaries. In the mid 19th century the parish comprised two main areas, separated by parts of Mount Bures and Chappel parishes, and four smaller detached areas, three (6 a.) in Chappel and one (2 a.) in White Colne. (fn. 70) Those detachments dated fromthe 16th century or earlier. Land in the centre of the parish, near Wakes Colne green, which was in Bures Hamlet in 1534 had been incorporated into Wakes Colne by 1838. (fn. 71) Under the Divided Parishes Act of 1882, a total of 90 a. formerly in Chappel, 26 a. formerly in Mount Bures, and 2 a. formerly in White Colne were transferred to Wakes Colne, and 6 a. formerly in Wakes Colne was transferred to Chappel. (fn. 72) Nevertheless Wakes Colne remained an irregular shape, almost split into two by tongues of Chappel and Mount Bures.
Figure 21: Wakes Colne c. 1800
Wakes Colne occupies a ridge between the valleys of the Colne and the Stour. The landrises from below 23 m. in the Colne valley to a high point of 71 m. just north of Wakes Colne green, then slopes steeply to 35 m. in the valley of the Cambridge brook. The eastern part of the parish slopes into the valley of a small tributary of the Colne, then rises to 53 m. near CreppingHall. The higher land is boulder clay, but the Colne, the Cambridge brook, and the brook near Crepping Hall have all exposed bands of London clay with Kesgrave sand and gravel in their valleys. There is a narrow band of alluviumalong the Colne, and a larger patch of sand and gravel extends from the church to Crepping Hall. (fn. 73)
The road from Colchester to Cambridge through Earls Colne and Halstead, turnpiked in1765, (fn. 74) runs along the southern edge of the parish. A network of minor roads and tracks,chief among them that running from Great Teyto Mount Bures, connects the scattered farmsteads to each other and to Wakes Colne green. Carriers and a horse-drawn omnibus ran along the Colchester road from Earls Colne toColchester in 1848, presumably stopping in Wakes Colne. Arthur Hutley started a motor bus service from Coggeshall to Colchester through the Colnes c. 1915; by the 1930s Eastern National and Blackwell & Sons ran an hourly service. Blackwells was acquired by Hedingham & District Omnibus in 1965. The Hedinghamand Eastern National services were still runningin 1984. (fn. 75)
The Colchester, Stour Valley, Sudbury, and Halstead Railway company completed its linefrom Marks Tey to Sudbury through Wakes Colne in 1849, (fn. 76) and the Colne Valley and Halstead Railway company completed their linefrom Chappel station to Halstead in 1860. (fn. 77) The Sudbury line was still open in 1996; the Halsteadline closed to passenger traffic in 1961 and to goods traffic in 1965. (fn. 78) Chappel station, actually in Wakes Colne, was opened in 1849 and rebuilt in 1891. In 1969, when closure of the line seemed imminent, the buildings were acquired by the Stour Valley Railway Preservation Society which in 1986 became the East Anglian Railway Museum. In 1996 the Museum owned the whole site except the track and platform for the Marks Tey-Sudbury trains. (fn. 79)
A site overlooking the brook on the western boundary of the parish was occupied from the Roman to the later medieval period. (fn. 80) By the 10th century Wakes Colne formed part of alarge estate which took its name from the river Colne, and which belonged to the ealdormen of Essex. Crepping, presumably a separate estate,extended into the later parishes of Fordham and Chappel. Its name contains the element 'ingas','followers of', with a lost personal name, and may date from the early or mid Anglo-Saxonperiod. (fn. 81)
In 1086 there was a recorded population of 25, including 3 servi, on Wakes Colne manor, and 14 on the 4 estates which formed the later Crepping manor. (fn. 82) In 1349 at least 13 tenants of Crepping manor had died by summer, presumably of the plague, 6 of them without heirs. (fn. 83) There were 106 poll-tax payers in Wakes Colne in 1377, (fn. 84) but the numerous unrepaired ordemolished houses reported in the 15th century and the early 16th (fn. 85) suggest a declining population then. The parish apparently escaped many of the 17th-century epidemics, but the numberof burials in 1694, 1695, and 1696 was doublethe average for the decade. Thirty-two households were assessed for hearth tax in 1671 and another 24 were exempt, (fn. 86) implying a populationof c. 200, a greater number than that suggested by the 89 adults reported in 1676. (fn. 87) Smallpoxprobably accounted for above average numbersof deaths in 1712, 1737, and 1738, (fn. 88) but the population rose fairly steadily throughout the18th century and the earlier 19th to reach 372in 1801 and 535 in 1861. It fell to 482 in 1901,when there was concern at the number of youngmen leaving the parish, (fn. 89) then rose to 501 in1911. The population remained under 500 formost of the 20th century, falling as low as 435in 1961, and was still only 462 in 1981; in 1991 it was 546. (fn. 90)
Woodland clearance in the early Middle Agesled to a pattern of dispersed settlement, much of it around greens or tyes. By 1777 Wakes Colne, Allcocks, and Parkers (later Parkhurst)greens, still totalling c. 14 a., marked the site of an earlier and larger area of common grazing ont he high ground near the centre of the parish. (fn. 91) Encroachments on the greens started in the 17th century or earlier, and the last remnants of Wakes Colne green were inclosed in the 1930s. (fn. 92) Pump Hall on Middle Green incorporates there mains of a late 15th- or 16th-century housewith hall and cross wing, facing south onto a site which was presumably then open but which was built on in the 17th century when the surviving Old Gables was erected. The 16th-century Lyntons and the late 16th- or early 17th-century Jordans Farm, on Lower Green, mark the former north and south edges of the green. Lyntons comprises a main range, which contained the hall and service rooms, and a parlour which was roofed as a cross wing. A stack and upper floor were put into the hall in the 17th century. At Jordans the hall may originally have had a smoke bay, which was later replacedby a brick stack. The northern edge of Parkersgreen is marked by the small, later 16th-centuryhouse since divided into June and Wenoahcottages. It was of standard three-room plan; the hall and service rooms in the eastern cottage are divided from the parlour in the western by thestack which, with the upper floor in the hall, was probably inserted early in the 17th century.
Figure 22: Wakes Colne Green, with fishers and its gardens in 1825
There are three moated sites in the parish, including the manor houses of Crepping and Little Loveney Halls. The third moat, on highground on the eastern side of Allcocks green, may have surrounded the house occupied by Gilbert the reeve in 1400 and by the Allcockfamily in the 17th century. The house, demolished by the early 20th century, was rebuilt inthe late 15th century as a hall with chamberblocks at either end. (fn. 93)
Several other substantial, late medieval, timber-framed houses survive; most of them are of two storeys. The later 15th-century WatchHouse, on the north-west corner of the crossroads north of Chappel bridge, was occupied by gentlemen in the 17th century and was one ofthe largest houses in the parish, with fivehearths, in 1671. (fn. 94) The two cross wings retainc rown-post roofs, but the roof to the central,hall, range was renewed in the 18th century. Earlier, perhaps in the later 16th century, a largec himney stack was inserted into the former crosspassage. The western, service, wing was remodelled and extended northwards in the early 17th century. Wakes Colne Place, formerly Bunners,on the Colchester road was a landmark by 1501. (fn. 95) Behind the north and west fronts of the surviving house are timber-framed ranges, apparently of a substantial L-shaped house of 17th-century or earlier origin. Shortly before1813 William Brett (fn. 96) refronted the house inbrick, greatly extended it to the east and south,and refitted it internally. Lane Farm, on Lane Road leading from the Colchester road to Wakes Colne green, is a late 14th- or early 15th-centuryhall-and cross-wing house which was remodelled in the 16th century and encased in brickin the early 19th. (fn. 97) The north-east corner of the nearby Fridays Cottage incorporates part of a15th-century parlour cross wing. One bay of the hall range, which has a cambered tie beam and a plain crown post, survives against its west side, and there is a 17th-century addition on the southside. Old House Farm, Station Road, (fn. 98) incorporates a possibly 14th-century cross wing to which a hall and another cross wing were added in the 15th century; both cross wings are of two storeys. The house was much restored in the mid 20th century.
Normandy Hall west of Parkhurst Green, formerly Normans Farm and the house for a copy hold estate in 1635, was built in the early 14th century as an aisled hall with a cross wing. (fn. 99) Fishers, the house of a medieval freehold, liessouth of Allcocks green. A house, built by William and Mary Potter in 1635 with a principal room on either side of a large stack with octagonal chimneys, forms the south-westcorner of the present L-shaped building. (fn. 1) The building was extended southwards in the mid 17th century and remodelled c. 1768, when Johnand Elizabeth Brett built a wing to the west. (fn. 2) There was extensive refenestration and some internal refitting in the later 19th century, and some remodelling in the later 20th century. Adovehouse, recorded in 1914, (fn. 3) was demolished c. 1973.
Further north, Inworth House, originallycomprising a hall and two ends under a single roof, is of the late 15th or early 16th century. It appears to take its name, first recorded for anearby field in 1838, (fn. 4) from a family rather than from an early settlement. Great Loveney Hall,a 16th- or early 17th-century farmhouse near the northern parish boundary, was reconstructedand encased in brick in the 19th century. The approach drive and the garden walls appear to derive from a formal 18th-century arrangement.The south-eastern quarter of Oak Farm, in thes outh-east corner of the parish, is probably the parlour cross wing of an early 16th-centuryhouse whose main range abutted its west side.The wing is jettied along its south end and has a large brick stack against the east wall. Against the north wall is a slightly later block which had a jetty along its west side and an external doorway in the north-east corner. In the mid 19thcentury a brick range containing principal rooms was built along the west side of the two oldblocks.
Twentieth-century infilling has created a small village along the Colchester and Station roads. There has also been infilling, including council houses of the 1970s, along Middle and Lower Green roads. (fn. 5)
An alehouse was licensed in 1596, and tippling houses and unlicensed beer-sellers were reported throughout the 17th century. No Wakes Colne houses were licensed between 1769 and1823, the parish presumably being served by inns in Chappel. (fn. 6) The Gardener's Arms on Wakes Colne green, recorded in 1838, closed in1974. The Sunderland Arms, beside the railwaystation by 1863, became the Railway inn c. 1890, and closed in 1964. (fn. 7) There was a small breweryon Wakes Colne green from 1861 or earlier until1914. (fn. 8) Since 1986 an annual beer festival has been held at the East Anglian Railway Museum.
In the early 20th century most houses inthe parish used shallow wells, although streamwater was pumped by ram to many of the larger houses. (fn. 9) A water tower was built on the northern edge of the parish in 1935-6. (fn. 10) Electricity was supplied by Colchester Borough from1933. (fn. 11)
A friendly society in Wakes Colne recorded in 1839 continued in 1844. (fn. 12) The Aldham and United Parishes Insurance Society had members in the parish from 1827 until c. 1951. (fn. 13) Areading room, opened with over 20 members in1907, had closed by 1912. (fn. 14) Bowls were played illegally in 1529, and in 1538 a game of 'le camp',an early form of football, resulted in bloodshed. (fn. 15) Since the 1950s international motor cycles crambles have been held in a field near the Cambridge brook.
Wakes Colne was one of the manors belonging to Joan, princess of Wales, which was attacked by the insurgents in 1381. (fn. 16) There is no evidence to support the local tradition that Kitty O'Shea, mistress and later wife of the Irish leader C. S.Parnell and sister of C. P. Wood of Wakes Hall,stayed at Lane Farm. (fn. 17)
MANORS. A manor of 1 hide and 30 a. in Colneheld by Assorin in 1066 was held by Robert Malet in demesne in 1086, and with Robert's other lands formed the honor of Eye. (fn. 18) The manor was held of that honor c. 1210, and in 1274 when it was said formerly to have been held of the honor of Boulogne. (fn. 19) The over-lordship was not recorded thereafter.
Henry II granted the manor in 1174 to Saherde Quency, (fn. 20) from whom it passed to his brotherRobert (d. c. 1197) and to Robert's son Saherde Quency, earl of Winchester. (fn. 21) The mesnelordship descended from Saher to his son Roger,earl of Winchester (d. 1264), (fn. 22) and then to Roger's eldest daughter and coheir, Margaret,wife of William de Ferrers earl of Derby, whosegreat-grandson, Robert Fitz Walter of WoodhamWalter, held in 1328. (fn. 23) Walter Fitz Walter, LordFitz Walter, was in dispute with the demesnelord in 1393. (fn. 24) The lordship was last recordedin 1422. (fn. 25)
Before 1219, Saher de Quency gave Colne to his younger son Robert. (fn. 26) Robert died before1264, and the manor passed with his younger daughter Hawise to Baldwin Wake, who was lord in 1274 and from whose family it was named WAKES COLNE. (fn. 27) Baldwin (d. 1282) and Hawise (d. c. 1285) were succeeded by their son John, Lord Wake (d. 1300), (fn. 28) and by John'sson Thomas (d. 1349) whose widow Blancheheld in dower until her death in 1380. (fn. 29) The manor descended, with the barony of Wake, to Joan, countess of Kent and later princess of Wales. (fn. 30) She was succeeded in 1385 by her son from her first marriage, Thomas Holland (d.1397), whose widow Alice held in dower until her death in 1416. (fn. 31) Wakes Colne then passed to their daughter Margaret, wife of Thomas of Lancaster, duke of Clarence. She died in 1440 and was succeeded by her son John Beaufort,earl and later duke of Somerset (d. 1444), by his daughter Margaret, wife of Edmund Tudor, and by her son Henry VII. (fn. 32) Henry VIII granted the manor to his illegitimate son Henry FitzRoy, duke of Richmond and Somerset (d. 1536), and then in 1544 to John de Vere, earl of Oxford. (fn. 33)
The manor descended with the earldom of Oxford until 1580 when Edward de Vere sold itto William Tiffin. (fn. 34) Tiffin (d. 1617) was succeeded by his great nephew, another WilliamTiffin, who sold Wakes Colne in 1635 to Sir John Jacob. (fn. 35) Jacob sold it in 1646 to HarbottleGrimston, later Sir Harbottle, Bt. (fn. 36) Wakes Colne then descended with West Bergholt until1719 when William Grimston (formerlyLuckyn) sold it to John London. John was succeeded in 1735 by his son Samuel London. (fn. 37) Samuel, or his son of the same name, died in1778 and was followed by his widow Mary (d.1783), who devised the manor to her nieces Elizabeth, wife of William Tice, and Mary, wife of John Field. In 1784 the manor was settled on William Tice and John Field, who in 1808 sold it to John Lay, tenant of Crepping Hall. (fn. 38) Lay(d. 1819) devised the manor to his nephew John Josselyn whose trustees sold it in 1823 to Henry Skingley. Skingley died in 1858 and was succeeded by his son Henry. (fn. 39) The manor, but not the land, was sold in 1869 to Joseph Beaumont,who enfranchised most of the copyholds. (fn. 40) It was sold by the trustees of G. F. Beaumont in1964. (fn. 41) In 1996 the lord was G. R. Horne.
Thomas Wake had a house in Wakes Colne by 1348, presumably, like its 16th-century successor, on the north bank of the Colne. By 1403 the hall, chapel, and several other rooms were being used as barns, and glass had been removed from windows, including those of the oratory near the great chamber. Other buildings, including the great solar, were leased to a tenant. (fn. 42) The house was still occupied by tenants in the early16th century, but the Tiffins lived there. (fn. 43) From1708 it was leased as a farm house, and before 1730 had been partly burnt down. (fn. 44) A new farm-house was built on the site in the 19th century. (fn. 45) Between 1825 and 1838 Henry Skingley built a new house on the north side of the Colchester road, of gault brick with a central portico and at hree-storeyed tower on the east. (fn. 46) It was converted into a residential home for sufferers from cerebral palsy in 1964. (fn. 47)
There was a park by 1325, (fn. 48) presumably northand west of the manor house where three fields were still called Park in 1838. (fn. 49) It seems to have been restored, and extended southwards acrossthe Colne, in the mid 19th century, (fn. 50) presumably by the first Henry Skingley.
In 1066 Alward held 68½ a. and 1 yardlandin CREPPING which in 1086 was held by Richard son of Gilbert de Clare and Modwin. (fn. 51) The overlordship descended with the honor of Clare to Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford (d. 1314). (fn. 52) Roger Mortimer, earl of March, was overlord at his death in 1398, (fn. 53) and the overlordship was last recorded in 426. (fn. 54)
Walter of Windsor held land in Creppingwhich escheated to the crown in 1186. (fn. 55) By 1195 Walter of Crepping probably held the estate, later two thirds of a knight's fee in Colne and Crepping. (fn. 56) By 1209 he held a further yardl and in Crepping of Bury St. Edmund's abbey, presumably the 36-a. estate which the abbey heldi n Colne in 1066 and 1086. (fn. 57) He or his predecessors had probably also acquired 94 a. in Colne and Fordham held by 5 sokemen in 1066 and by Richard de Clare in 1086. (fn. 58) Walter was succeeded before 1227 by Alan of Crepping, whoc. 1230 held land in Wakes Colne and Fordham of Michael of Fordham. Michael granted that estate to the Hospitallers, (fn. 59) but there is no later evidence of the order's interest in Crepping or Wakes Colne. Alan's son Walter forfeited the manor in 1266, but in 1274 and 1282 Walter's son Hugh of Crepping was lord. (fn. 60) In 1307Hugh's son Walter granted Crepping to Henry and Margaret Bacon, but in 1324 Hugh son of Hugh Crepping conveyed the reversion to William and Elizabeth Royston. (fn. 61) Hugh died in1340, and in 1342 Robert Perepoint became lord. (fn. 62) In 1356 Peter and Elizabeth Perepoint conveyed the reversion of the manor to John deVere, earl of Oxford. (fn. 63) The manor descended with the earldom of Oxford until the later 16th century. (fn. 64)
In 1548 John de Vere, earl of Oxford, granted a 60-year lease of Crepping Hall to his servant John Turner, (fn. 65) and in 1585 Turner's widow Christine bought the reversion. (fn. 66) She died in1605, and was succeeded by her daughter Margaret Powell, and by Margaret's son John Smith (both d. 1621). (fn. 67) The manor then passed to John's nephews Stephen (d. 1670) and Tomas Smith (d. 1684). (fn. 68) Thomas's son, another Thomas (d. 1721) was succeeded by his niece Mary Tendring (d. 1735) who devised the manor to her cousin Thomas Alexander (d.1747). He devised it to his nephew Charles Alexander who died in 1775 and was followed by Charles Alexander Crickitt (d. 1803) and his wife Sarah (d. 1828). (fn. 69) Harriet Alexander Crickitt (d.1868) devised the manor to H. B. Harvey. (fn. 70) J. L.Beaumont was lord in 1943. (fn. 71) The manor was sold in1954 by the trustees of G. F. Beaumontto H. C. Percival of Wakes Colne, and sold againc. 1984 to E. B. Joiner of California. (fn. 72)
Crepping Hall, (fn. 73) which was formerly moated,retains a substantial part of an early 14th-century aisled hall, presumably built by the Crepping family. A two-centred headed doorway in the north end of the west aisle may haveled to a stair to a first floor solar in a continuationof the hall range, perhaps the adjoining chamber which was damaged with the hall in 1432. (fn. 74) That and the service end of the house appear to have been rebuilt in the later 16th century, probablyby the Turners. The eastern aisle of the hall as removed, presumably to facilitate the fenestration of an inserted first floor. Additions, including a staircase, were made to the south in the 18th century when there was some refitting,and there was further remodelling c. 1905. (fn. 75)
Part of the Little Colne estate held of Robert Malet by Walter of Caen in 1086 (fn. 76) extended into Wakes Colne where it formed the freehold or submanor of Serdeleshey or LOVENEY HALL. It was held of Colne Engaine manor until 1556 or later. (fn. 77) By the later 12th century William de Cheney or his successors had enfeoffed Richard Blunville, whose great nephew William Blunville disputed the estate with Richard Engaine between 1199 and 1201. (fn. 78) Another William Blunville held c. 1278. (fn. 79) Byc. 1380 the estate was called Loveney Hall, pre-sumably from an owner; c. 1440 it belonged toa Culpepper. (fn. 80) About 1503 Roger Draper sold'Loveney Hall and Sherdelous' to Edward Sulyard, (fn. 81) and in 1546 Edward's son Eustace conveyed the estate, then called a manor, to William Sidey. Sidey at once sold part of the estate, later Great Loveney Hall, to John Newton, (fn. 82) and therest to John Sidey. John Sidey devised the manor to his son, another John, who sold it in1574 to John Ball (d. 1602) and his son John (d.1621). (fn. 83) They were succeeded by another John Sidey, whose widow held in 1646 with her second husband Thomas Harlakenden. (fn. 84) Theestate, still called a manor in 1698 and 1711, was called Little Loveney Hall by 1730. (fn. 85) It belonged to Osgood Hanbury (d. 1784) in 1768,and presumably descended with Inglesthorpes manor in White Colne to O. B. Hanbury (d.1890). (fn. 86) It was farmed by H. C. Crook in 1902, (fn. 87) and belonged to his family in 1996. (fn. 88)
Little Loveney Hall lies close to the edge of a large, waterfilled moat. The house has a three roomed plan with lobby entry, of the late 16th or early 17th century. A large service wing was added to the east in the 18th century.
69P.N. Essex, 5; E.R.O., D/DU 351/1A. This article waswritten in 1996; architectural descriptions were compiled orrevised by A. P. Baggs. 70O.S. Maps 6", Essex, XVII, XVIII, XXVI, XXVII(1881 edn.); E.R.O., D/CT 103; above, fig. 12. 71P.R.O., E 134/4 Chas1/East5; E.R.O., D/DGw M3,rot. 30; ibid. D/P 37/28/7-8; D/P 88/1/1; ibid. D/CT 103. 72Census, 1891; O.S. Map 6", Essex, XVII. SE., XXVI.NE. (1881 edn.). 73O.S. Map 1/10,000, TL 93 SW., TL 92 NW., TL 83SE., TL 82 NE. 74J. M. L. Booker, 'Essex Turnpike Trusts' (DurhamUniv. M. Litt. thesis, 1979), 202 and maps at end of vol. 75Axten, 'Hist. Public Transport in Colch. Area', 6-7,25, 44, 46, 51-2, 62-5, 82, 85. 76D. I. Gordon, Regional Hist. Railways of G. B. v.(Eastern Counties), 154. 77E. P. Willingham, From Construction to Destruction,3; E. Carter, Hist. Geography of Railways of Brit. Isles,140-1, 275. 78Willingham, From Construction to Destruction, 193-4. 79Inf. from East Anglian Railway Mus. 80Inf. from Owen Bedwin, E.C.C. Planning Dept., andMr. I. Stratford; cf. E.C.C., SMR 8624, 8776, 14391. 81P.N. Essex, 379, 383; C. Hart, Early Chart. Essex,pp. 11, 19, 23; Essex Tribute, ed. K. Neale, 64. 82V.C.H. Essex, i. 451, 480-1, 550, 560, 573. 83E.R.O., D/DBm M3, rott. 42, 43d. 84P.R.O., E 179/107/58. 85E.R.O., D/DBm M7, passim; D/DGw M1, rott. 4, 8,11d.-12; M2, rott. 3, 7; M3, rot. 21. 86Ibid. Q/RTh 5. 87Compton Census, ed. Whiteman, 52. 88E.R.O., D/P 88/1/1-2; D/P 88/12/1. 89Census, 1801-1901; A. F. J. Brown, Meagre Harvest,228. 90Census, 1921-1991. 91Essex Map (1777); E.R.O., D/CT 103, 103A. 92Inf. from Mr. I. Stratford. 93R.C.H.M. Essex, iii. 226; P.R.O., SC 6/839/21;E.R.O., D/DGw M2, rot. 24; D/DGw M4-5. 94E.R.O., D/DGw M4; ibid. D/ACR 11, f. 196; ibid.Q/RTh 5. 95Ibid. D/ACR 1, f. 27v. 96Ibid. D/DGw M12, f. 276v. 97E.A.T. 3rd ser. xv. 160. 98Below, plate 30. 99E.A.T. 3rd ser. xxviii. 240-3; E.R.O., D/DU 594. 1Initials and date painted on fireplace bressumer. 2Initials and date in roundel in the plaster of the westfront. 3E.R. xl. 23; Kelly's Dir. Essex (1914). 4E.R.O., D/CT 103, 103A. 5O.S. Map 1/10,000, TL 83 SE. (1977 and 1987 edns.). 6E.R.O., Q/SBa 1/37; ibid. Q/RLv 24-79; ibid. Q/SR135/4, 353/38, 371/19, 374/25, 424/23; above, Chappel,Intro. 7Ibid. D/CT 103, 103A; White's Dir. Essex (1863), 163;Kelly's Dir. Essex (1866 and later edns.); E.R.O., sale cat.B4746; ibid. D/DU 116/49; inf. from Mr. 1. Stratford. 8I. Peaty, Essex Brewers, 112. 9Geol. Survey, Water Supply of Essex (1916), 286; inf.from Mr. I. Stratford. 10Inf. from Mrs. Ida McMaster. 11E.R.O., Colch. Boro. Mun., Electricity Supply Cttee.Min. Bk. 1929-34, Annual Rep. 1933. 12Ibid. Q/RSf 10. 13Ibid. Acc. C445 (uncat.). 14Ibid. T/P 181/3/15; Kelly's Dir. Essex (1910, 1912). 15E.R.O., D/DGw M3, rott. 23, 25, 32d. 16Cal. Pat. 1381-5, 78-9. 17F. S. L. Lyons, Fall of Parnell 1890-1 (Studies inIrish Hist. 2nd ser. i), passim. 18V.C.H. Essex, i. 550; Sanders, Eng. Baronies, 43-4. 19Red Bk. Exch. (Rolls Ser.), ii. 504; Rot. Hund. (Rec.Com.), i. 140. 20Pipe R. 1174 (P.R.S. xxii), 126. 21Colne Cart. pp. 52, 90; Red Bk. Exch. (Rolls Ser.), ii.504; Complete Peerage, xii (2), 747-8. 22Cal. Inq. p.m. i, p. 255; Complete Peerage, xii (2),753-4. 23Cal. Inq. p.m. vii, p. 127; Complete Peerage, iv.197-203; v. 474-5; xii (2), 751-4. 24P.R.O., SC 6/839/20. 25Ibid. C 139/7, no. 54. 26Rot. Litt. Claus. (Rec. Com.), i. 432; Close R. 1234-7, 47. 27Cal. Inq. p.m. i, p. 187; Complete Peerage, xii (2), 300;Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), i. 139. 28Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, p. 262; Cal. Pat. 1292-1301, 296,303; Cal. Close, 1296-1302, 125. 29Cal. Inq. p.m. v, p. 258; ix, pp. 204, 208; xv, p. 182;Cal. Close, 1349-54, 53. 30Cal. Inq. p.m. x, pp. 45, 53; Complete Peerage, vii.148-50. 31Cal. Inq. p.m. xvi, p. 111; xvii, p. 309; Cal. Close,1396-9, 248; Complete Peerage, vii. 156. 32P.R.O., C 139/101, no. 73; Cal. Pat. 1441-6, 349;Complete Peerage, iii. 259; vii. 158-62; xii (1), 44-8; L.P. Hen. VIII, i (2), p. 1042. 33L. & P. Hen. VIII, xv, pp. 166, 346; xix (1), p. 286;P.R.O., E 318/17/828. 34Cal. Pat. 1547-8, 379; 1578-80, p. 306; E.R.O.,D/DH VI B 4. 35E.R. xxxix. 100-2; E.R.O., D/DH VI B 5, 16; D/DHtT75/1. 36E.R.O., D/DH VI B 20; D/DHt T75/4. 37Ibid. D/DHt T75/11-12; D/DGw M9; D/DPr 345;Morant, Essex, ii. 223. Above, West Bergholt, Manors. 38E.R.O., D/DGw M11, p. 105; D/DGw M12, p. 29;D/DHt T75/18. 39Ibid. D/DHt T75/18; D/DBm T5A; D/DGw M13,pp. 36, 396; D/DHw T105; ibid. D/Z 2/14/9; Gent. Mag.cxlii (1), 686. 40E.R.O., D/DB T1005; Sale Cat. 1991, in privatepossession. 41E.C.L. Chelm., sale cat., 3rd sale of Beaumont manors. 42P.R.O., C 135/97, no. 22; ibid. E 318/17/28; E.R.O.,D/DGw M1, rott. 8, 10; Essex Map (1777). 43P.R.O., REQ 2/84/34; REQ 2/92/18. 44E.R.O., D/DH VI B24-5; ibid. T/P 195/11. 45Ibid. sale cat. C626. 46Ibid. D/DE1 P55; ibid. D/CT 103; White's Dir. Essex.(1848), 145; Dept. of Env., Building List. 47Eve. Gaz. 9 May 1989. 48Cal. Pat. 1324-7, 235; below, this par., Econ. Hist. 49E.R.O., D/CT 103. 50Ibid. D/CT 71 (1840) does not show the parkextending into Chappel. 51V.C.H. Essex, i. 560, 573. 52Cal. Inq. Misc. 1219-1307, p. 206; Cal. Inq. p.m. v,p. 348. 53Cal. Inq. p.m. xvii, p. 444. 54Cal. Close, 1422-9, 248-9. 55Pipe R. 1186 (P.R.S. xxxvi), 12; Pipe R. 1189 (Rec.Com.), 21; V.C.H. Essex, vi. 9. 56Pipe R. 1195 (P.R.S. n.s. vi), 14; Feet of F. Essex, i. 24. 57Feet of F. Essex, i. 44; V.C.H. Essex, i. 451. 58V.C.H. Essex, i. 480-1. 59Feet of F. Essex, i. 81; Cart. St. John of Jerusalem, i,p. 313. 60Feet of F. Essex, i. 91, 113; Cal. Inq. Misc. 1219-1307,p. 206; Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), i. 139; Cal. Pat. 1281-92, 45. 61P.R.O., CP 40/164, rot. 347; Feet of F. Essex, ii. 242. 62E.R.O., D/DBm M3, rott. 22 and d., 27. 63Ibid. D/DBm T5/15; D/DPr 154; Feet of F. Essex,iii. 113. 64Cal. Close, 1409-13, 347; 1422-9, 248-9; Rot. Parl.vi. 228; E.R.O., D/DBm T5/17. 65E.R.O., D/DBm T5/23. 66P.R.O., PROB 11/61, f. 274; E.R.O., D/DBm T5/28;Feet of F. Essex, vi. 32. 67P.R.O., C 142/447, no. 9; C 142/396, no. 146; E.R.O.,D/DBm T5/31-4. 68Morant, Essex, ii. 57, 223; E.R.O., D/DBm T5/35;D/DBm T5A; D/DBm M11-12; P.R.O., C 2/Jas1/P6/25;E.R. viii. 81-2. 69E.R.O., D/DBm M13, M17-18; ibid. D/Z 2/14/9;E.R. viii. 83-4; Morant, Essex, ii. 57, 223. 70E.R.O., D/DBm T16. 71E.R. lii. 159. 72Ibid. lxiv. 9; E.C.L. Chelm., Sale Cat., BeaumontManors; ibid. Manorial Auctioneers' Partnership, Sale Cat.spring 1991, particulars of Wakes Colne manor; inf. fromMr. I. Stratford. 73Below, plate 28. 74E.R.O., D/DBm M7, rot. 5. 75Ibid. D/RLw M1/3, p. 103. 76V.C.H. Essex, i. 550. 77E.R.O., D/DC 9/7A. 78Cur. Reg. R. i. 87, 314, 367, 474, 477. 79Cal. Inq. Misc. 1219-1307, p. 334. 80E.R.O., D/DPr 5, p. 64; D/DPr 9; P.N. Essex, 383. 81E.R.O., D/DC 9/7A. 82Ibid. D/DU 351/1A; Feet of F. Essex, v. 220; vi. 167,173; P.R.O., C 3/341/33; deeds in possesion of Mr. and Mrs.D. T. Prestney. 83E.R.O., D/DU 351/1a; Feet of F. Essex, iv. 286;P.R.O., C 2/Eliz/S18/50; C 2/Jas 1/B26/60; C 3/158/15; C78/23, no. 4; cf. below, Little Horkesley, Manors. 84E.R.O., T/B 548/1. 85P.R.O., CP 25/2/829/9 Wm. III, Hil., no. 35; CP25/2/924/12 Anne, Hil., no. 8; E.R.O., T/P 195/11. 86Morant, Essex, ii. 223; E.R.O., D/CT 103A; below,White Colne, manors. 87Kelly's Dir. Essex (1902). 88It was sold in 1997 to A. Howland Jackson.