What are Specific Learning Difficulties( SpLD) 

The term refers to a difference or difficulty with particular aspects of learning. Themostcommon SpLDS are  dyslexia,dyspraxa, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),dyscalculia and dysgraphia. An individual  may have one of these independently  or they  can co-exist as part of a wider profile.


  What is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that results in significant and persistent problems with reading, spelling, writing and sometimes arithmetic. It occurs in spite of normal teaching and is independent of socio-cultural background or intelligence


Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty which mainly affects the development of literacy and language related skills. It is likely to be present at birth and to be lifelong in its effects. It is characterised by difficulties with phonological processing, rapid naming, working memory, processing speed, and the automatic development of skills that may not match up to an individual’s other cognitive abilities. It tends to be resistant to conventional teaching methods, but its effects can be mitigated by appropriately specific intervention, including the application of information technology and supportive counselling.


 2         What is Dyspraxia?

‘Dyspraxia’ or developmental co-ordinatation disorder is recognised by the majority of people used to explain a range of movement difficulties.
The term dyspraxia comes from the word praxis, which means ‘doing, acting’. Dyspraxia affects the planning of what to do and how to do it. It is associated with problems of perception, language and thought.   

For more information 



3         What is Dyscalculia?

Dyscalculia ‘number dyslexia’
4-6% of population have dyscalculia.  It’s hard to diagnose and to define what to test because much affects maths ability and therefore there is a lot to measure.  Is it a single deficit or comorbid with other SpLD’s?  Is it maths with dyslexia or dyslcalculia?  Knowledge and understanding of number system is the difference.  The spectrum seems to be mild to severe i.e. a bright child who is average with maths.

For more information  www.bdadyslexia.org.uk


 4       What is ADHD?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a diverse condition characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity; and can have a significant impact on patients lives.

For more information     www.adhadfoundation.org.uk


5         What is Irlen Syndrome? (visual stress)

Irlen syndrome is a form of visual stress frequently found in dyslexics and leads to difficulties with fine vision tasks such as reading. 

For more information    What is Irlen Syndrome?