What are Specific Learning Difficulties( SpLD) 

The term refers to a difference or difficulty with particular aspects of learning. Themostcommon SpLDS are  dyslexia,dyspraxa, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),dyscalculia and dysgraphia. An individual  may have one of these independently  or they  can co-exist as part of a wider profile.


  What is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that results in significant and persistent problems with reading, spelling, writing and sometimes arithmetic. It occurs in spite of normal teaching and is independent of socio-cultural background or intelligence. It often co-occurs with related conditions, such as dyspraxia, dyscalculia and attention deficit disorder. (ADHD).

Dyslexia mainly affects the development of literacy and language related skills. It is likely to be present at birth and to be lifelong in its effects. It is characterised by difficulties with phonological processing, rapid naming, working memory, processing speed, and the automatic development of skills that may not match up to an individual’s other cognitive abilities...

 For a full definition Definition of dyslexia - British Dyslexia Association (bdadyslexia.org.uk)

Video      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=11r7CFlK2sc


Dyslexia  tends to be resistant to conventional teaching methods, but  its effects can be mitigated by appropriately specific intervention, including the application of information technology and supportive counseling.

It is estimated that 1 in 10 of the UK‘s population has some form of dyslexia. The condition varies from person to person and no two people will have the same set of strengths and weaknesse

 Dyslexics often have strong, visual, creative and problem solving skills and with these an ability to think outside of the box. They thrive  in creative industries like visual and performing arts; in the information technology and engineering sectors where their ability to consider problems from different angle and provide  innovative solutions are much sort after.

Famous living dyslexic include : Bill Gates founder of Microsoft; actors Anthony Hopkins an .Orlando Bloom ;the director Stephen Spielberg; musicians Cher and Noel Gallagher; the architect Richard Rogers , chief Jamie Oliver, engineer and scientist , Maggie Aderin-Pocock,  all of whom are high achievers in their individual fields




2         What is Dyspraxia?

‘Dyspraxia’ or developmental co-ordinatation disorder is recognised by the majority of people used to explain a range of movement difficulties.
 Dyspraxia affects the planning of what to do and how to do it. It is associated with problems of perception, language and thought.   

For more information 

Dyspraxia Foundation - 30th Anniversary - What is Dyspraxia?



3         What is Dyscalculia?

Dyscalculia ‘number dyslexia’
4-6% of population have dyscalculia.  It’s hard to diagnose and to define what to test because much affects maths ability and therefore there is a lot to measure.  Is it a single deficit or comorbid with other SpLD’s?  Is it maths with dyslexia or dyslcalculia?  Knowledge and understanding of number system is the difference.  The spectrum seems to be mild to severe i.e. a bright child who is average with maths.

For more information  https://www.dyslexia.uk.net/specific-learning-difficulties/dyscalculia/


 4       What is ADHD?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a diverse condition characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity; and can have a significant impact on patients lives.

For more information     www.adhadfoundation.org.uk


5         What is Irlen Syndrome? (visual stress)

Irlen syndrome is a form of visual stress frequently found in dyslexics and leads to difficulties with fine vision tasks such as reading

. Further  information   http://www.Irlen UK


For  information on other Special Learning Difficulties: 

The National Attention Deficit Disorder Information and Support Service. ADDISS: http://www.addiss.co.uk/

The National Autistic Society What is autism